Small but fundamentals differences between C and C++
In C++ there are two variants of the function main: int main() and int main(int argc, char* *argv).
The ruturn type is an int, while in C is void. Moreover, it is not required to add an explicit return 0 at the end of the function. If ommitted function main return 0 by default.
###Comments C++ introduces an end-of-line comment wich starts with a double slash (//). Is it still possible continue to use the old C comments /* */.
Strict type checking
C++ requires that for each function the prototype must be know before the function is called. Moreover, the call must match the prototype. The compiler can promote a basic type to another with bigger size (e.g. a short promoted to int). This mechanism is called implicit cast and is also present in C
###Sizeof char In C++ the size of a char is 1, while in C is 4. This happen because in C the char is promoted to an int.
##nullptr C++ introduces a new value to initialise pointers variables: nullptr. This is very useful to avoid confusion between 0 and NULL. NULL is simply a macro (#define NULL 0) and should be always avoided.
###Default arguments In C++ is possible use default values in a function. These values are supplied by the compiler when they are not specified by the programmer. This means that the arguments must be know at compile-time. As a consequence, these arguments need to be supplied in function declaration. Is not possible provide default arguments for all type in C++ (e.g. you can use a defualt value for an argument passed by reference).
###void parameter list In C a function declared as void func() is able to accept any kind of parameters. In C++ the same function doesn’t accept any parameters because it is equivalent to void func(void).
###typedef typedef is a keyword that comes from C and is still used in C++. However it is not required anymore when defining struct, enum or union because the type can be use also as type name.
##Further Information C++
C++ Annotations by Frank B. Brokken, Ver 9.9.0